The result was announced on the morning of 24 June: A petition calling for a second referendum attracted more than four million signatures,   but was rejected by the government on 9 July. According to researchers based at the University of Warwick , areas with "deprivation in terms of education, income and employment were more likely to vote Leave". The Leave vote tended to be greater in areas which had lower incomes and high unemployment , a strong tradition of manufacturing employment, and in which the population had fewer qualifications. According to Thomas Sampson, an economist at the London School of Economics , "Older and less-educated voters were more likely to vote 'leave' [ There was no gender split in the vote [ Support for leaving was linked with "poor economic outcomes at the individual or area level" and with "self-reported opposition to immigration, but not with exposure to immigration".
Opinion polls found that Leave voters believed leaving the EU was "more likely to bring about a better immigration system, improved border controls, a fairer welfare system, better quality of life, and the ability to control our own laws", while Remain voters believed EU membership "would be better for the economy, international investment, and the UK's influence in the world".
Polls found that the main reasons people voted Leave were "the principle that decisions about the UK should be taken in the UK", and that leaving "offered the best chance for the UK to regain control over immigration and its own borders". The main reason people voted Remain was that "the risks of voting to leave the EU looked too great when it came to things like the economy, jobs and prices".
There has been litigation to explore the constitutional footings on which Brexit stands after R Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union simply known as the "Miller case" and the Notification Act:. Under this procedure, a member notifies the European Council , whereupon the EU is required to "negotiate and conclude an agreement with [the leaving] State, setting out the arrangements for its withdrawal, taking account of the framework for its future relationship with the [European] Union". The negotiation period is limited to two years unless extended, after which the treaties cease to apply.
Although the Referendum Act did not expressly require Article 50 to be invoked,  the UK government stated that it would expect a leave vote to be followed by withdrawal. It had been argued that the Article 50 withdrawal process could be halted unilaterally by the British government,  an opinion with which the author of Article 50 itself, Lord Kerr , expressed agreement. Both parties to the withdrawal negotiation are bound by Article 50 3 of the Treaty, which states explicitly that the EU treaties will cease to apply "from the date of entry into force of the withdrawal agreement or, failing that, two years after" the withdrawal notification unless the EU Council and the UK agree to extend the two-year period.
Prior to the negotiations, May said that the UK government would not seek permanent single market membership ,  end ECJ jurisdiction, seek a new customs agreement, end to free movement of people , and maintain the Common Travel Area with Ireland , among other things. Negotiations started on 19 June , the first day of talks.
The Guardian view on the Brexit vote: bin this bad deal
In March , a month transition period and the terms for it was provisionally agreed. He said that it was not likely that there would be a solution before the whole deal is agreed. The plan sought to keep UK access to the single market for goods, but not necessarily for services, while allowing UK to have an independent trade policy. On 13 November , negotiations ended when the UK government and EU agreed on the text of the proposed withdrawal agreement.
Following an unprecedented vote on 4 December , MPs ruled that the UK government was in contempt of parliament for refusing to provide to Parliament the full legal advice it had been given on the effect of its proposed terms for withdrawal. The following day, the advice was published. The question asked was, "What is the legal effect of the UK agreeing to the Protocol to the Withdrawal Agreement on Ireland and Northern Ireland in particular its effect in conjunction with Articles 5 and of the main Withdrawal Agreement?
The announcement came minutes after the Prime Minister's Office confirmed the vote would be going ahead. Its members objected strongly to the Withdrawal Agreement's inclusion of the Irish backstop. On 15 January , the House of Commons voted to against the deal, which was the largest majority against a United Kingdom government ever. On 24 February, Prime Minister May announced that the next vote on the withdrawal agreement would be on 12 March , 17 days away from Brexit. On 18 March , the Speaker informed the House of Commons that a third meaningful vote could only be held on a motion that was significantly different from the previous one, citing parliamentary precedents going back to The Withdrawal Agreement was brought back to the House without the attached understandings on 29 March.
After May left the meeting, a discussion amongst the remaining EU leaders resulted in the rejection of 30 June date and offered instead a choice of two new alternative Brexit dates. On 22 March , the extension options were agreed between the UK government and the European Council. The second alternative offered was that if MPs approved May's deal, Brexit would be due to occur on 22 May The later date was the day before the start of European Parliament elections.
On 10 April , late-night talks in Brussels resulted in a further extension, to 31 October ; Theresa May had again only requested an extension until 30 June.
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Under the terms of this new extension, if the Withdrawal Agreement were to be passed before October, Brexit would occur on the first day of the subsequent month. On 17 October , following "tunnel talks" between UK and EU,  a revised withdrawal agreement was agreed on negotiators level, and endorsed by the UK government and the EU Commission. On 12 September , the bill passed its first vote and second reading by a margin of votes to votes in the House of Commons. After the Act became law on 26 June , the European Council decided on 29 June to renew its call on Member States and Union institutions to step up their work on preparedness at all levels and for all outcomes.
The Withdrawal Act fixed the period ending 21 January for the government to decide on how to proceed if the negotiations have not reached agreement in principle on both the withdrawal arrangements and the framework for the future relationship between the UK and EU; while, alternatively, making future ratification of the withdrawal agreement as a treaty between the UK and EU depend upon the prior enactment of another act of Parliament for approving the final terms of withdrawal when the current Brexit negotiations are completed. In any event, the act does not alter the two-year period for negotiating allowed by Article 50 that ends at the latest on 29 March if the UK has not by then ratified a withdrawal agreement or agreed a prolongation of the negotiating period.
The Withdrawal Act which became law in June allows for various outcomes including no negotiated settlement. It authorises the government to bring into force, by order made under section 25, the provisions that fix "exit day" and the repeal of the European Communities Act , but exit day must be the same day and time as when the EU Treaties are to cease to apply to the UK.
A report published in March by the Institute for Government commented that, in addition to the European Union Withdrawal bill, primary and secondary legislation will be needed to cover the gaps in policy areas such as customs, immigration and agriculture. In and , the House of Lords published a series of reports on Brexit-related subjects, including:.
The act makes provision about nuclear safeguards, and for connected purposes. A general election was held on 8 June , announced at short notice by the new Prime Minister May. The Conservative Party, Labour and UKIP made manifesto pledges to implement the referendum, although the Labour manifesto differed in its approach to Brexit negotiations, such as unilaterally offering permanent residence to EU immigrants.
Labour gained significantly on votes and seats, retaining its position as the second-largest party. On 26 June , Conservatives and the DUP reached a confidence and supply agreement whereby the DUP would back the Conservatives in key votes in the House of Commons over the course of the parliament. Opinion polling overall showed an initial fall in support for Brexit from the referendum to late , when responses were split evenly between support and opposition. Support rose again to a plurality until the General Election.
One estimate of demographic changes ignoring other effects implies that were an EU referendum to take place in October , [update] there would be between , and , fewer Leave voters and between , and , more Remain voters, which would result in a Remain majority. In March , a petition submitted to the UK Parliament petitions website, calling on the government to revoke Article 50 and stay in the EU, reached a record-level of over six million, one hundred thousand signatures.
Opinion polling on whether the UK should leave or remain in the EU, excluding "Neither" responses and normalised. In March , the UK government announced that it would cut many import tariffs to zero, in the event of a no-deal Brexit. Many effects of Brexit depend on whether the UK leaves with a withdrawal agreement , or before an agreement is ratified "no-deal" Brexit , particularly in connection with the regulation and control of cross-border outward and inward movements of persons and animals, of goods for export and import, and of financial and other transactions.
According to a study by Ken Mayhew, Emeritus Professor of Education and Economic Performance at Oxford University, Brexit posed the following threats to higher education: "loss of research funding from EU sources; loss of students from other EU member states; the impact on the ability of the sector to hire academic staff from EU member states; and the impact on the ability of UK students to study abroad. This allows their citizens freedom of movement within the area, with only passport checks at airports and seaports.
Since , the border has been essentially invisible. There is concern about whether this becomes a "hard border" with fewer, controlled crossing points and customs checks. They say it undermines the UK's territorial integrity, prevents it making its own trade deals, and fear it could keep the UK or part of it under EU rules indefinitely.expert-prepper.com/4819.php
How MPs voted on May's withdrawal deal defeat
Under EU rules, food products must be checked at their point-of-entry to the EU, which would mean new checks on food products coming from Great Britain to Northern Ireland. Unionists have not ruled this out, but the Irish government said it is "not enough on its own". Some trade experts say trusted-trader schemes would not be enough alone to end all border checks, and the technological solutions may increase the costs and complexity of trade. The EU has committed to working on alternative arrangements, and Angela Merkel said the withdrawal agreement would not need to be renegotiated if a practical solution to the backstop was found, but such arrangements may take years to become fully operational, and would require agreement from the EU and the Irish government.
The UK government announced that it would not perform customs checks at the Irish border after a no-deal Brexit and acknowledged that it might present a smuggling risk.
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The French and British governments say they remain committed to the Le Touquet Agreement , which lets UK border checks be completed in France, and vice-versa juxtaposed controls. To ensure the smooth flow of freight, France created a new "smart border" which will scan trucks' licence plates and automatically link them to shipping documents filled out online by exporters. Trucks travelling to Britain will either be waved through, or undergo checks if they carry food, plants or livestock.
Economists expect that Brexit will have damaging immediate and longer term effects on the economies of the UK and at least part of the EU In particular, there is a broad consensus among economists and in the economic literature that Brexit will likely reduce the UK's real per capita income in the medium and long term, and that the Brexit referendum itself damaged the economy.
According to one study, the referendum result had pushed up UK inflation by 1. There is overwhelming or near-unanimous agreement among economists that leaving the EU will adversely affect the British economy in the medium- and long-term. According to most economists, EU membership has a strong positive effect on trade and as a result the UK's trade would be worse off if it left the EU.
Economists warned that London's future as an international financial centre depended on whether the UK would obtain passporting rights for British banks from the EU, suggesting that if banks located in the UK were not able to obtain them, they would have strong incentives to relocate to alternative financial centres within the EU. Studies on the economic impact that different forms of Brexit will have on different parts of the country indicate that Brexit will exacerbate regional economic inequality in the UK, as already struggling regions will be hardest hit by Brexit.
Short-term macroeconomic forecasts by the Bank of England and other banks of what would happen immediately after the Brexit referendum were also pessimistic. According to a study by the University of Exeter and Chatham House researchers, there are considerable benefits for the UK to be integrated into the European energy market. The authors of the study said, "if the UK wants to enjoy the economic benefits of remaining part of what is an increasingly integrated European electricity market then, as European legislation is currently drafted, it will not only have to forgo an element of autonomy through accepting legislation and regulations made collectively at the EU level, but it will also lose much of its voice in that decision making process, effectively becoming a rule-taker rather than a rule-maker.